Dalian, also called Lüda is a major seaport town, at the southwestern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, on Korea Bay and the offshore Changshan Islands. Population (1990) 2,420,000.
The Treaty of Portsmouth, which ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), transferred the Liaodong territory to the Japanese, who renamed it Kwangtung. The seaport town of Lüshun, renamed Ryojun, became an important Japanese naval base and was (1905-1937) the administrative center of the territory.
The seaport town Dalian, given the Japanese name Dairen, was enlarged and modernized under the Japanese. Dalian replaced Lüshun as the capital of Kwangtung in 1937 and developed rapidly in the 1930s and early 1940s as the main port for Japanese-controlled Manchuria. Following the defeat of Japan in World War II, both ports were placed under joint Soviet-Chinese control in 1945.
Both seaport cities were returned to full Chinese sovereignty in 1955. Lüshun again became a Chinese naval base, and Dalian became a center of heavy industry in the late 1950s and 1960s. During the 1970s Dalian was developed as China's leading petroleum port.
Major cities near Dalian: