Also called T'ien-ching. A major port and industrial center near Beijing. It is situated at the junction of the Hai River and the Grand Canal. Population (1990, municipality) 8,785,402.
The extensive municipality includes the city of Tientsin, a large manufacturing center and a port; the seaport of Tanggu, on the Bo Hai gulf; several villages; and some farmland.
The leading manufactures of the municipality include steel, textiles, machinery, electronic equipment, machine tools, and chemicals; other products are processed food, rubber goods, motor vehicles, and rugs and carpets.
Nankai University (1919) and Tianjin University.
A minor seaport, called Hai-chin and Chih-ku from the 11th to the 14th century, Tianjin gained prominence as a port for Beijing during the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (Ch'ing) (1644-1911) dynasties.
It was occupied by British (1858) and French (1860) forces and grew rapidly after being opened to foreign trade and settlement in 1860.
Much of the old city, including its walls, was destroyed during the Boxer Rebellion (1900).
The community was soon rebuilt in an early 20th-century European style. The Japanese occupied the city during 1937-45; they began the construction of Tanggu and initiated port improvements at Tianjin proper, completed by the Chinese in the early 1950s.
Heavy damage occurred (1976) during an earthquake centered at nearby Tangshan.
Major cities near Tianjin: