In 2007 the city of Dalian includes the Port of Dalian (on Korea Bay) and Lüshun (Port Arthur), the major seaport town, at the southwestern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula.
In 2007 ice-free Dalian is the main commercial port for industrialized northeastern China and the leading petroleum-exporting point for the productive Daqing oil field. It can accommodate supertankers and has large shipyards.
While under Russian control (1898-1905) Dalian was transformed from a minor fishing port into a modern commercial port and was given the Russian name Dalny. The Treaty of Portsmouth, which ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), transferred the Liaodong peninsula to the Japanese, who renamed it Kwangtung.
Lüshun is an important ice-free naval base guarding the entrance to the gulf of Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli).
Lüshun was an important port as early as the 6th century AD. It was occupied (1858) by the British and was fortified as a naval base by the Chinese in the 1880s. It was attacked and briefly held by the Japanese in 1895; subsequently it was granted, with adjacent parts of the peninsula, to Russia as part of the Liaodong lease. While under Russian control (1898-1905), Lüshun was renamed Port Arthur. It was valued by the Russians for its year-round access to the Pacific Ocean and was extensively refortified for naval use.
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